The effect of 2-Aminoanthracene (2AA) on adipose tissue gene expression in pregnant Sprague Dawley rats was investigated. Adipocyte dysfunction may be a critical link between obesity and insulin resistance as a result of abnormal fat storage and mobilization. We have previously observed insulin-signaling related altered gene expression in animals exposed to 2AA. 2AA is an amino-substituted polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon used in manufacturing dyes, chemical, inks, resins, and polyurethanes. 2AA is a known mutagen and carcinogen that occurs naturally and can be found in tobacco smoke and cooked foods. To examine insulin-dependent 2AA effects on the adipose tissue, nine timed pregnant dams were assigned into dose regimens of 0 mg/kg- (control-C), 50 mg/kg- (low dose-LD) and 100 mg/kg-diet (high dose-HD) 2AA. Dams were fed 2AA contaminated diet during the period of gestation and postpartum. Body weight gain during gestation and postnatal period indicated no significant differences in animals. Examination of the AT for microscopic changes suggests no alterations between control and low dose animals. However, AT of the high dose animals exhibited clusters of mononuclear cells and small numbers of eosinophils and mast cells. Inflammatory response was noted in dams fed 2AA. This is observed as phagocytic cells which are most likely macrophages as part of the inflammatory response. In addition, analysis of the mRNA expression of cytokines and adipokines demonstrate the importance of inflammation in ATs. For instance, TNFα, LEPTIN and IL-6 transcripts were relatively more expressed in the low dose animals than the high dose and control rats. It appears the effects of 2AA on pregnant dams were more pronounced in the low dose group than the high dose group. This means that rat offspring within this group might be more susceptible to diabetic-type conditions.
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