Skip to main content
Metrics for Assessing Improvements in Primary Health Care
Annual Review of Public Health
  • Kurt C Stange, PhD, Case Western Reserve University
  • Rebecca S Etz, Virginia Commonwealth University Medical Center
  • Heidi Gullett, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine
  • Sarah A Sweeney, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine
  • William L Miller, MD, MA, Lehigh Valley Health Network
  • Carlos R Jaén, Md. PhD, University of Texas Health Science - San Antonio
  • Benjamin F Crabtree, PhD, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School
  • Paul A Nutting, MD, MSPH, University of Colorado at Denver and Health Sciences Center
  • Russell E Glasgow, University of Colorado
Publication/Presentation Date
Metrics focus attention on what is important. Balanced metrics of primary health care inform purpose and aspiration as well as performance. Purpose in primary health care is about improving the health of people and populations in their community contexts. It is informed by metrics that include long-term, meaning- and relationship-focused perspectives. Aspirational uses of metrics inspire evolving insights and iterative improvement, using a collaborative, developmental perspective. Performance metrics assess the complex interactions among primary care tenets of accessibility, a whole-person focus, integration and coordination of care, and ongoing relationships with individuals, families, and communities; primary health care principles of inclusion and equity, a focus on people's needs, multilevel integration of health, collaborative policy dialogue, and stakeholder participation; basic and goal-directed health care, prioritization, development, and multilevel health outcomes. Environments that support reflection, development, and collaborative action are necessary for metrics to advance health and minimize unintended consequences.
Document Type
Citation Information

Stange, K., Etz, R., Gullett, H., Sweeney, S., Miller, W., Jaén, C., & ... Glasgow, R. (2014). Metrics for assessing improvements in primary health care. Annual Review Of Public Health, 35423-442. doi:10.1146/annurev-publhealth-032013-182438