Haptics research has seen several recent efforts at understanding and recreating real vibrations to improve the quality of haptic feedback in both virtual environments and teleoperation. To simplify the modeling process and enable the use of single-axis actuators, these previous efforts have used just one axis of a three-dimensional vibration signal, even though the main vibration mechanoreceptors in the hand are know to detect vibrations in all directions. Furthermore, the fact that these mechanoreceptors are largely insensitive to the direction of high-frequency vibrations points to the existence of a transformation that can reduce three-dimensional high-frequency vibration signals to a one-dimensional signal without appreciable perceptual degradation. After formalizing the requirements for this transformation, this paper describes and compares several candidate methods of varying degrees of sophistication, culminating in a novel frequency-domain solution that performs very well on our chosen metrics.
- haptic feedback,
- measurement-based modeling
Available at: http://works.bepress.com/william_mcmahan/2/