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The arctic freshwater system: Changes and impacts
Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences
  • Daniel White, University of Alaska Fairbanks
  • Larry D. Hinzman, University of Alaska Fairbanks
  • Lilian Alessa, University of Alaska Anchorage
  • John J. Cassano, University of Colorado Boulder
  • Molly Chambers, University of Alaska Fairbanks
  • Kelly Falkner, Oregon State University
  • Jennifer Francis, Rutgers University - New Brunswick/Piscataway
  • William J. Gutowski, Jr., Iowa State University
  • Marika Holland, National Center for Atmospheric Research
  • R. Max Holmes, Woods Hole Research Center
  • Henry Huntington, Huntington Consulting
  • Douglas Kane, University of Alaska Fairbanks
  • Andrew Kliskey, University of Alaska Anchorage
  • Craig Lee, University of Washington
  • Bruce Peterson, Ecosystems Center
  • T. Scott Rupp, University of Alaska Fairbanks
  • Fiamma Straneo, Woods Hole Research Center
  • Michael A. Steele, University of Washington
  • Rebecca Woodgate, University of Washington
  • Daqing Yang, University of Alaska Fairbanks
  • Kenji Yoshikawa, University of Alaska Fairbanks
  • Tinjung Zhang, University of Colorado Boulder
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Dramatic changes have been observed in the Arctic over the last century. Many of these involve the storage and cycling of fresh water. On land, precipitation and river discharge, lake abundance and size, glacier area and volume, soil moisture, and a variety of permafrost characteristics have changed. In the ocean, sea ice thickness and areal coverage have decreased and water mass circulation patterns have shifted, changing freshwater pathways and sea ice cover dynamics. Precipitation onto the ocean surface has also changed. Such changes are expected to continue, and perhaps accelerate, in the coming century, enhanced by complex feedbacks between the oceanic, atmospheric, and terrestrial freshwater systems. Change to the arctic freshwater system heralds changes for our global physical and ecological environment as well as human activities in the Arctic. In this paper we review observed changes in the arctic freshwater system over the last century in terrestrial, atmospheric, and oceanic systems.

This article is from Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences 112 (2007): G04S54, doi:10.1029/2006JG000353. Posted with permission.

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American Geophysical Union
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Daniel White, Larry D. Hinzman, Lilian Alessa, John J. Cassano, et al.. "The arctic freshwater system: Changes and impacts" Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences Vol. 112 Iss. G4 (2007) - G04S54
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