According to the Australian Institute of Marine Science Index of Marine Industry, Australia is 'one of the great marine nations of the world' with the 'potential to become an oceanic superpower'. This assessment is based on the size of Australia's marine jurisdiction, the extent and variety of the resources within it, and the strength and economic contribution of Australia's marine industries. It is easy to agree with this positive assessment. Part B of this book explains the vast geographical extent of Australia's marine jurisdiction, as well as Australia's rights and responsibilities within this area, and outlines its resources and their potential. The question is, how can Australia achieve this vision of being a leading and effective utiliser, protector and manager of its marine space? The challenge of determining how to do this is the central thread running through this book. This chapter attempts the difficult task of distilling the key issues arising from the efforts to manage Australia's marine resources explored in the book. It does this by identifying and expanding on a number of interrelated themes that have emerged. These narrative strands in the evolving 'story' of the management of Australia's marine resources are not exhaustive. Nevertheless, they help to frame a discussion of the principal concerns and challenges confronting managers of Australia's marine resources. We conclude with a call to 'reconceptualise Australia's marine space in order to advance Australia's maritime affairs.