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X-ray absorption studies of chlorine valence and local environments in borosilicate waste glasses
Journal of Nuclear Materials
  • David A. McKeown, Vitreous State Laboratory
  • Hao Gan, Vitreous State Laboratory
  • Ian L. Pegg, Vitreous State Laboratory
  • Wayne C. Stolte, University of Nevada, Las Vegas
  • I. N. Demchenko, University of Nevada, Las Vegas
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Chlorine (Cl) is a constituent of certain types of nuclear wastes and its presence can affect the physical and chemical properties of silicate melts and glasses developed for the immobilization of such wastes. Cl K-edge X-ray absorption spectra (XAS) were collected and analyzed to characterize the unknown Cl environments in borosilicate waste glass formulations, ranging in Cl-content from 0.23 to 0.94 wt.%. Both X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) data for the glasses show trends dependent on calcium (Ca) content. Near-edge data for the Ca-rich glasses are most similar to the Cl XANES of CaCl2, where Cl− is coordinated to three Ca atoms, while the XANES for the Ca-poor glasses are more similar to the mineral davyne, where Cl is most commonly coordinated to two Ca in one site, as well as Cl and oxygen nearest-neighbors in other sites. With increasing Ca content in the glass, Cl XANES for the glasses approach that for CaCl2, indicating more Ca nearest-neighbors around Cl. Reliable structural information obtained from the EXAFS data for the glasses is limited, however, to ClCl, ClO, and ClNa distances; ClCa contributions could not be fit to the glass data, due to the narrow k-space range available for analysis. Structural models that best fit the glass EXAFS data include ClCl, ClO, and ClNa correlations, where ClO and ClNa distances decrease by approximately 0.16 Å as glass Ca content increases. XAS for the glasses indicates Cl− is found in multiple sites where most Cl-sites have Ca neighbors, with oxygen, and possibly, Na second-nearest neighbors. EXAFS analyses suggest that ClCl environments may also exist in the glasses in minor amounts. These results are generally consistent with earlier findings for silicate glasses, where Cl− was associated with Ca2+ and Na+ in network modifier sites.
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Citation Information
David A. McKeown, Hao Gan, Ian L. Pegg, Wayne C. Stolte, et al.. "X-ray absorption studies of chlorine valence and local environments in borosilicate waste glasses" Journal of Nuclear Materials Vol. 408 Iss. 3 (2010) p. 236 - 245
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