The relict, phylogenetically important scorpion genus Calchas Birula, 1899 (Iuridae) remained monotypic since its description. Its sole species, Calchas nordmanni Birula, 1899, was known only from northeastern Turkey until Kinzelbach (1980) published first records from southern and southeastern Turkey. A few more localities have been reported from Turkey; the species was also found on two Greek islands, Samos and Megisti. We analyzed significant material (63 specimens, including a previously unpublished large series from Naturhistorisches Museum Wien), and concluded that three distinct, disjunct species exist rather than one widespread species as previously thought. Two new species are described: Calchas birulai sp. nov. (southeastern Turkey, northern Iraq; 30 specimens studied) and Calchas gruberi sp. nov. (southern Turkey; Megisti Island and Samos Island, Greece; 23 specimens studied). The type species Calchas nordmanni Birula, 1899 (10 specimens studied) is restricted to northeastern Turkey.
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