The before, during, and after (B-D-A) reading framework is a research-based instructional model that incorporates strategies and activities throughout the reading process to help students interact and learn with text by providing varying degrees of guidance on several levels. The instructional activities and strategies incorporated into lessons before, during, and after reading are essential to active and purposeful learning (Vacca, Vacca, & Mraz, 2014). B-D-A can thus be of special benefit to English language learners (ELLs) who need additional linguistic support as they try to anticipate, comprehend, and apply their textual understanding. Before-reading activities help the teacher activate students’ knowledge, stimulate interest, establish a purpose, and maintain direction. During-reading activities guide students in their search for meaning. After-reading activities deepen, reinforce, and extend learning. Below are some suggested B-D-A strategies and activities at each stage of the reading process that teachers can use to support their ELLs’ learning.
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