Fans, Rules, and Celebratory Expression Rules in the NCAA and NFLNorth American Society for the Study of Sport Annual Meeting (2014)
Previous research on celebratory behavior in sport has centered on sportsmanlike conduct, NFL and NCAA rules committees, and athletes views about rules about expression. This paper focuses attention on fans' opinions about the intersection of race and athlete celebratory expression. Over 300 student athletes and non-student athletes were surveyed and asked about the racial aspects of rule making in collegiate and professional football. One trend in the open-ended responses was that there was great variance in how black males and females and white males and females saw race as a key factor in rule making. Many other racial and ethnic groups are included in addition to athletes from over 12 different sports.
Citation InformationVernon Andrews. "Fans, Rules, and Celebratory Expression Rules in the NCAA and NFL" North American Society for the Study of Sport Annual Meeting (2014)
Available at: http://works.bepress.com/vernon-andrews/26/