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Article
Anaplasma marginale msp1{alpha} Genotypes Evolved under Positive Selection Pressure but Are Not Markers for Geographic Isolates
Journal of Clinical Microbiology (2003)
  • José de la Fuente
  • Ronald A. Van Den Bussche
  • Tulio M Prado, University of Tennessee, Knoxville
  • Katherine M Kocan
Abstract
Anaplasma marginale (order Rickettsiales, family Anaplasmataceae), a tick-borne pathogen of cattle, is endemic in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Many geographic isolates of A. marginale occur in the United States and have been identified by major surface protein 1a (MSP1a), which varies in sequence and molecular weight due to different numbers of tandem 28- to 29-amino-acid repeats. The present study was undertaken to examine the genetic variations among isolates of A. marginale obtained during 2001 from infected cattle from east-central Oklahoma, where A. marginale is endemic. The gene and protein sequences of MSP1a and msp4 nucleotide sequences were used to infer the phylogenetic relationships among Oklahoma and New World isolates from Argentina, Brazil, Mexico, and the United States. All 11 A. marginale isolates collected from Oklahoma had different MSP1a sequences but identical MSP4 sequences. The phylogenies of the msp4 sequences of 13 isolates from Oklahoma in comparison with those of 7 Latin American isolates and 12 U.S. isolates by maximum-parsimony (MP) and maximum-likelihood (ML) analyses, with A. centrale and A. ovis sequences used as outgroups, provided strong bootstrap analysis support for a Latin American clade. Isolates of A. marginale from the southern United States (Florida, Mississippi, and Virginia) and the west-central United States (California, Idaho, Illinois, Oregon, Missouri, and Texas) also grouped into two clades. Both clades contained isolates from Oklahoma, suggesting extensive cattle movement. ML analysis of the msp4 sequences of isolates from Oklahoma provided bootstrap analysis support for east-central and north-central clades in Oklahoma, and both clades included isolates from Stillwater, Okla. Analysis of the codon and amino acid changes among the msp4 sequences of isolates with different phylogenies provided evidence that msp4 is not under positive selection pressure. In contrast, the phylogenies of the MSP1a DNA and protein sequences of 13 isolates from Oklahoma in comparison with those of 7 Latin American and 13 isolates from the United States by MP and ML analyses demonstrated no geographic clustering and provided evidence that this gene is under positive selection pressure. The results indicate that msp1{alpha} is not a marker for the characterization of A. marginale geographic isolates and suggest that the genetic heterogeneity observed among isolates of A. marginale within Oklahoma could be explained by cattle movement and the maintenance of different genotypes by independent transmission events.
Keywords
  • rickettsial pathogen,
  • Anaplasma marginale,
  • genes,
  • msp4
Publication Date
April, 2003
Citation Information
José de la Fuente, Ronald A. Van Den Bussche, Tulio M Prado and Katherine M Kocan. "Anaplasma marginale msp1{alpha} Genotypes Evolved under Positive Selection Pressure but Are Not Markers for Geographic Isolates" Journal of Clinical Microbiology Vol. 41 Iss. 4 (2003)
Available at: http://works.bepress.com/tulio_prado/6/