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Article
Anthropometric Models of Bone Mineral Content and Areal Bone Mineral Density based on the Bone Mineral Density in Childhood Study
Osteoporosis International
  • David F. Short, Wright State University - Main Campus
  • Vicente Gilsanz
  • Heidi J. Kalkwarf
  • Joan M. Lappe
  • Sharon Oberfield
  • John A. Shepherd
  • Karen K. Winer
  • Babette S. Zemel
  • Thomas N. Hangartner, Wright State University - Main Campus
Document Type
Article
Publication Date
3-1-2015
Abstract
Summary New models describing anthropometrically adjusted normal values of bone mineral density and content in children have been created for the various measurement sites. The inclusion of multiple explanatory variables in the models provides the opportunity to calculate Z-scores that are adjusted with respect to the relevant anthropometric parameters. Introduction Previous descriptions of children’s bone mineral measurements by age have focused on segmenting diverse populations by race and sex without adjusting for anthropometric variables or have included the effects of a single anthropometric variable. Methods We applied multivariate semi-metric smoothing to the various pediatric bone-measurement sites using data from the Bone Mineral Density in Childhood Study to evaluate which of sex, race, age, height, weight, percent body fat, and sexual maturity explain variations in the population’s bone mineral values. By balancing high adjusted R2 values with clinical needs, two models are examined. Results At the spine, whole body, whole body sub head, total hip, hip neck, and forearm sites, models were created using sex, race, age, height, and weight as well as an additional set of models containing these anthropometric variables and percent body fat. For bone mineral density, weight is more important than percent body fat, which is more important than height. For bone mineral content, the order varied by site with body fat being the weakest component. Including more anthropometrics in the model reduces the overlap of the critical groups, identified as those individuals with a Z-score below −2, from the standard sex, race, and age model. Conclusions If body fat is not available, the simpler model including height and weight should be used. The inclusion of multiple explanatory variables in the models provides the opportunity to calculate Z-scores that are adjusted with respect to the relevant anthropometric parameters.
DOI
10.1007/s00198-014-2916-x
Citation Information
David F. Short, Vicente Gilsanz, Heidi J. Kalkwarf, Joan M. Lappe, et al.. "Anthropometric Models of Bone Mineral Content and Areal Bone Mineral Density based on the Bone Mineral Density in Childhood Study" Osteoporosis International Vol. 26 Iss. 3 (2015) p. 1099 - 1108 ISSN: 0937941X
Available at: http://works.bepress.com/thomas_hangartner/117/