Skip to main content
Again, Computers and the Brain (with E. von Goldammer)
Journal of Molecular Electronics (1988)
  • Rudolf Kaehr
Theoretical analyses of the logical structure for an adequate ´theory of living systems´ reveal the shortcomings of all standard logical systems ranging from two-valued Aristotelian logic to n-valued types eulogized by Post, Lukasiewicz and others. All these calculi have one thing in common that makes them completely inadequate for any formalization of self-referential systems, i.e., all living systems; they are essentially linear. ´Linear´ in the technical sense of being one-dimensional, since all logical statements are arranged in an ordered, unique sequence of numbers, resulting in pure hierarchically structured organizations. Self-reference, however, derives only from heterarchical structured Systems. Günther developed a formal, codifiable system of mathematical logic (´theory of poly-contexturality´) which goes beyond all multi-valued logics that have been common up to now, and possesses the ability to describe heterarchically structured systems in a formal mathematical sense. In other words, the ´theory of poly-contexturality´ provides the theoretical basis for simulating self-reflecting processes (cognition) on logical machines. The subject is considered in connection with McCulloch´s study on a heterarchy of values determined by the topology of nervous nets.
  • heterarchy,
  • poly-contexturality,
  • neural nets,
  • brain,
  • computer
Publication Date
Citation Information
Rudolf Kaehr. "Again, Computers and the Brain (with E. von Goldammer)" Journal of Molecular Electronics Vol. 4 (1988)
Available at: