The present study proposes a generic interspecies quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) model that can be used to predict the acute toxicity of aldehydes to most species of aquatic organisms. The model is based on the flow-through fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) 50% lethal concentration (LC50) data combined with other selected fish acute toxicity data and on the static ciliate (Tetrahymena pyriformis) 50% inhibitory growth concentration (IGC50) data. The toxicity of Schiff-base acting aldehydes was defined using hydrophobicity, as the calculated log 1-octanol/water partition coefficient (log Kow), and reactivity, as the donor delocalizability for the aldehyde O-site (D(O-atom)). The fish model [log 1/LC50 = -2.503(+/-1.950) + 0.480(+/-0.052) log Kow + 18.983(+/-6.573) D(O-atom), n = 62, r2 = 0.619, s2 = 0.241, F = 48.0, Q2 = 0.587] compares favorably with the ciliate model [log 1/IGC50 = -0.985(+/-1.309) + 0.530(+/-0.044) log Kow + 11.369(+/-4.350) D(O-atom), n = 81, r2 = 0.651, s2 = 0.147, F = 72.9, Q2 = 0.626]. The fish and ciliate surfaces appear to be parallel, because they deviate significantly only by their intercepts. These observations lead to the development of a global QSAR for aldehyde aquatic toxicity [log E(-1) = bE(Organism) + 0.505(+/-0.033) log Kow + 14.315(+/-3.731) D(O-atom), n = 143, r2 = 0.698, s2 = 0.187, S2(Fish) = 0.244, S2(Ciliate) = 0.149, F = 98, Q2 = 0.681]. The general character of the model was validated using acute toxicity data for other aquatic species. The aldehydes global interspecies QSAR model could be used to predict the acute aquatic toxicity of untested aldehydes and to extrapolate the toxicity of aldehydes to other aquatic species.
Available at: http://works.bepress.com/terry_schultz/38/