Aqueous extracts of five fossil-energy-related comparative research materials have been examined under acute static conditions for toxic effects by use of the Tetrahymena assay system. Cells were exposed to various concentrations of extracts, and cytolysis and population growth impairment were monitored. In addition, chemical class fractionation and major organic elemental analysis were performed. Synthetic fossil fuel materials are more toxic than conventional petroleum crude oils and coal-derived materials are more toxic than crude shale oil. Synthetic fossil-fuel-related materials have a higher nitrogen and oxygen content and a greater aromaticity than do natural crude oils. Acute toxicity appears to be correlated with ether-soluble acid (phenolic) content, mono- and diaromatic hydrocarbon content, and ether-soluble base (primary aromatic amines and azaarenes) content.
- coal liquefaction and gasification,
- shale oil,
- aqueous extracts
Available at: http://works.bepress.com/terry_schultz/168/