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A Comparison of Bond Strength Between Direct- and Indirect-bonding Methods
The Angle Orthodontist
  • Brandon James Linn, Orthodontist in private practice
  • David W. Berzins, Marquette University
  • Virendra B. Dhuru, Marquette University
  • T. Gerard Bradley, Marquette University
Document Type
Format of Original
6 p.
Publication Date
The E. H. Angle Education and Research Foundation Inc.

The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the shear bond strength and the sites of bond failure for brackets bonded to teeth, using two indirect-bonding material protocols and a direct-bonding technique. Sixty extracted human premolars were collected and randomly divided into three groups. The direct-bonded group (group 1) used a light-cured adhesive and primer (Transbond XT). One indirect-bonded group (group 2) consisted of a chemical-cured primer (Sondhi Rapid Set) and light-cured adhesive (Transbond XT), whereas the other group (group 3) used a light-cured primer (Orthosolo) and adhesive (Enlight LV). Forty hours after bonding, the samples were debonded. Mean shear bond strengths were 16.27, 13.83, and 14.76 MPa for groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively. A one-way analysis of variance showed no significant difference in mean bond strength between groups (P = .21). Furthermore, a Weibull analysis showed all three groups tested provided over a 90% survival rate at normal masticatory and orthodontic force levels. For each tooth, an Adhesive Remnant Index (ARI) score was determined. Group 2 was found to have a significantly lower ARI score (P < .05) compared with groups 1 and 3. In addition, Pearson correlation coefficients indicated no strong correlation between bond strength and ARI score within or across all groups.


Published version. The Angle Orthodontist, Vol. 76, No. 2 (March 2006): 289-294. Permalink. © 2006 The E. H. Angle Education and Research Foundation Inc. Used with permission.

Citation Information
Brandon James Linn, David W. Berzins, Virendra B. Dhuru and T. Gerard Bradley. "A Comparison of Bond Strength Between Direct- and Indirect-bonding Methods" The Angle Orthodontist (2006) ISSN: 0003-3219
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