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Bond Strength of Direct and Indirect Bonded Brackets After Thermocycling
The Angle Orthodontist
  • Jacob Daub, Marquette University
  • David W. Berzins, Marquette University
  • Brandon James Linn
  • T. Gerard Bradley, Marquette University
Document Type
Format of Original
6 p.
Publication Date
The E. H. Angle Education and Research Foundation Inc.

Thermocycling simulates the temperature dynamics in the oral environment. With direct bonding, thermocycling reduces the bond strength of orthodontic adhesives to tooth structure. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the shear bond strengths (SBS) of one direct and two indirect bonding methods/adhesives after thermocycling. Sixty human premolars were divided into three groups. Teeth in group 1 were bonded directly with Transbond XT. Teeth in group 2 were indirect bonded with Transbond XT/Sondhi Rapid Set, which is chemically cured. Teeth in group 3 were indirect bonded with Enlight LV/Orthosolo and light cured. Each sample was thermocycled between 5°C and 55°C for 500 cycles. Mean SBS in groups 1, 2, and 3 were not statistically significantly different (13.6 ± 2.9, 12.3 ± 3.0, and 11.6 ± 3.2 MPa, respectively; P > .05). However, when these values were compared with the results of a previous study using the same protocol, but without thermocycling, the SBS was reduced significantly (P = .001). Weibull analysis further showed that group 3 had the lowest bonding survival rate at the minimum clinically acceptable bond-strength range. The Adhesive Remnant Index was also determined, and group 2 had a significantly (P < .05) higher percentage of bond failures at the resin/enamel interface.


Published version. The Angle Orthodontist, Vol. 76, No. 2 (March 2006): 295-300. Permalink. © 2006 The E. H. Angle Education and Research Foundation Inc. Used with permission.

Citation Information
Jacob Daub, David W. Berzins, Brandon James Linn and T. Gerard Bradley. "Bond Strength of Direct and Indirect Bonded Brackets After Thermocycling" The Angle Orthodontist (2006) ISSN: 0003-3219
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