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Rapid Gut Transit Time and Slow Fecal Isoflavone Disappearance Phenotype Are Associated with Greater Genistein Bioavailability in Women
The Journal of Nutrition (2003)
  • Yan Zheng, Iowa State University
  • Jiang Hu, Iowa State University
  • Patricia A. Murphy, Iowa State University
  • D. Lee Alekel, Iowa State University
  • Warren D Franke, Iowa State University
  • Suzanne Hendrich, Iowa State University
The bioavailability of soybean isoflavones varies widely among individuals due to many factors, including activities of gut microflora. To characterize factors that affect fecal isoflavone disappearance phenotype and isoflavone bioavailability in women, 35 Asian and 33 Caucasian women, 18-43 y of age, provided fecal samples for anaerobic incubation with isoflavones in vitro at two times 5 mo apart (Phases I and II). Diet, physical activity and health history were investigated at these times. A single dose of soymilk powder [1.2 mg (4.57 micromol) total isoflavone/kg body] was given to all subjects with breakfast in phase II. Daidzein and genistein from fecal incubations, urine and fecal samples were measured by reverse-phase HPLC. Three significantly different daidzein and two genistein disappearance phenotypes were identified from fecal isoflavone incubations. More Asians than Caucasians were identified within the high daidzein disappearance phenotype. Caucasians and Asians differed significantly in daily intake of red meat (0.3 +/- 0.1 vs. 1.0 +/- 0.1 servings/d), dairy foods (2.9 +/- 0.2 vs. 1.2 +/- 0.2 servings/d) and insoluble dietary fiber (3.6 +/- 0.3 vs. 1.4 +/- 0.3 g). BMI, maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2 max)) and physical activity level were significantly greater in Caucasians than in Asians. Asian subjects of the low genistein disappearance phenotype had more rapid gut transit time (GTT) and greater isoflavone bioavailability as reflected in urinary genistein excretion than did Asians of the high genistein disappearance phenotype (GTT, 40 +/- 8 vs. 63 +/- 5 h; 11.0 +/- 2.7 vs. 4.0 +/- 1.7% of ingested genistein excreted in urine). Caucasians of both genistein disappearance phenotypes had longer GTT than did Asian subjects (84 +/- 5 vs. 56 +/- 6 h) and resembled Asians of the high genistein disappearance phenotype in genistein bioavailability. Relatively rapid GTT coupled with a low fecal isoflavone disappearance phenotype as occurred in Asian but not Caucasian subjects produced greater genistein bioavailability, as reflected in urinary genistein excretion.
  • Department of Health and Human Performance
Publication Date
Publisher Statement
This article is from Journal of Nutrition 133 (2003): 3110-3116. Posted with permission.
Citation Information
Yan Zheng, Jiang Hu, Patricia A. Murphy, D. Lee Alekel, et al.. "Rapid Gut Transit Time and Slow Fecal Isoflavone Disappearance Phenotype Are Associated with Greater Genistein Bioavailability in Women" The Journal of Nutrition Vol. 133 (2003)
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