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Article
Soyasaponin I and Sapongenol B Have Limited Absorption by Caco-2 Intestinal Cells and Limited Bioavailability in Women1
The Journal of Nutrition (2004)
  • Jiang Hu, Iowa State University
  • Manju B. Reddy, Iowa State University
  • Suzanne Hendrich
  • Patricia A. Murphy, Iowa State University
Abstract
A human study was conducted to evaluate soyasaponin bioavailability in humans. Eight healthy women ingested a single dose of concentrated soy extract containing 434 micromol of group B soyasaponins, the predominant form of soyasaponins in soybeans. Neither soyasaponins nor their metabolites were detected in a 24-h urine collection. Soyasapogenol B, a major metabolite of group B soyasaponins, was found (36.3 +/- 10.2 micromol) in a 5-d fecal collection but no group B soyasaponins were detected. A human colon cancer Caco-2 cell model was used to evaluate the absorbability of soyasaponins at the mucosal level. The mucosal transfers of soyasaponin I and soyasapogenol B were 0.5-2.9 and 0.2-0.8%, respectively, after 4-h incubation on the Caco-2 monolayer. The apical to basolateral absorptions of soyasaponin I and soyasapogenol B were low with P(app) of 0.9 to 3.6 x 10(-6) and 0.3 to 0.6 x 10(-6) cm/s, respectively. The transport rate and cell uptake of soyasaponin I were saturable and concentration-independent. In contrast, soyasapogenol B was taken up by Caco-2 cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Soyasaponin I had no apparent cytotoxic effect on Caco-2 cells at concentrations up to 3 mmol/L, whereas soyasapogenol B at 1 mmol/L or more significantly reduced cell viability. Therefore, ingested soyasaponins have low absorbability in human intestinal cells and seem to be metabolized to soyasapogenol B by human intestinal microorganisms in vivo and excreted in the feces.
Keywords
  • soyasaponin I,
  • soyasapogenol B,
  • Caco-2 cell monolayer,
  • human bioavailability
Publication Date
August 1, 2004
Citation Information
Jiang Hu, Manju B. Reddy, Suzanne Hendrich and Patricia A. Murphy. "Soyasaponin I and Sapongenol B Have Limited Absorption by Caco-2 Intestinal Cells and Limited Bioavailability in Women1" The Journal of Nutrition Vol. 134 Iss. 8 (2004)
Available at: http://works.bepress.com/suzanne_hendrich/2/