Background: It is unclear whether traditional lecture followed by simulation leads to the best learning and knowledge and skill retention over time. Method: A 3×4 mixed design study used three modes of education—traditional lecture with self-guided learning, expert modeling/dual viewing with brief questioning, and expert plus self-modeling—at four time points to compare knowledge, time to treat, and correct steps over time. Results: No significant differences were found in knowledge or time to treat between training methods. An expert modeling/ dual viewing group with brief questioning performed more steps correctly (p = 0.05) than did the other two groups. Conclusion: Expert modeling may help students remember and perform a complex series of tasks in a scenario. Further research is needed to explore expert modeling for novice learners.
Available at: http://works.bepress.com/suzan_kardong-edgren/31/