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Risks of congenital malformations and perinatal events among infants exposed to calcium channel and beta-blockers during pregnancy
Meyers Primary Care Institute Publications and Presentations
  • Robert L. Davis, Kaiser Permanente Georgia
  • David Eastman, Center for Health Studies, Group Health Cooperative
  • Heather McPhillips, University of Washington
  • Marsha A. Raebel, Kaiser Permanente Colorado
  • Susan E. Andrade, University of Massachusetts Medical School
  • David H. Smith, Kaiser Permanente
  • Marianne Ulcickas Yood, Henry Ford Health System
  • Sascha Dublin, Group Health Research Institute
  • Richard Platt, Harvard Pilgrim Health Care Institute and Harvard Medical School
UMMS Affiliation
Meyers Primary Care Institute
Publication Date
Document Type
Abnormalities, Drug-Induced; Adolescent; Adrenergic beta-Antagonists; Adult; Calcium Channel Blockers; Drug Prescriptions; Female; Health Maintenance Organizations; Humans; Hypoglycemia; Infant, Newborn; Insurance, Pharmaceutical Services; Pregnancy; Pregnancy Trimester, Third; *Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects; Retrospective Studies; Risk Assessment; Risk Factors; Seizures; Time Factors; United States; Young Adult
PURPOSE: Calcium channel blockers and beta-blockers (BBs) are widely used during pregnancy, but data on their safety for the developing infant are scarce. We used population-based data from 5 HMOs to study risks for perinatal complications and congenital defects among infants exposed in-utero. METHODS: We studied women older than 15 years delivering an infant between 1/1/96 and 12/31/00, who had been continuously enrolled with prescription drug coverage for >/= 1 year prior to delivery. Information on prescription drug dispensings, inpatient, and outpatient diagnoses and procedures was obtained from automated databases at each HMO. RESULTS: There were 584 full-term infants exposed during pregnancy to BBs and 804 full-term infants exposed to calcium-channel blockers, and over 75,000 unexposed mother-infant pairs with >/= 30 days follow-up. Infants exposed to BBs in the third trimester of pregnancy had over threefold increased risk for hypoglycemia (RR 3.1; 95% CI 2.2, 4.2) and an approximately twofold increased risk for feeding problems (RR 1.8; 95% CI 1.3, 2.5). Infants exposed to calcium-channel blockers in the third trimester had an increased risk for seizures (RR 3.6 95% CI 1.3, 10.4). Chart review confirmed the majority of the exposed seizure and hypoglycemia cases. There were no increased risks for congenital anomalies among either group of infants, except for the category of upper alimentary tract anomalies; this increased risk was based on only two exposed cases. CONCLUSIONS: Infants whose mothers receive BBs are at increased risk for neonatal hypoglycemia, while those whose mothers take calcium-channel blockers are at increased risk for neonatal seizures.
DOI of Published Version
Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf. 2011 Feb;20(2):138-45. doi: 10.1002/pds.2068. Epub 2010 Nov 15. Link to article on publisher's site
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Link to Article in PubMed
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Citation Information
Robert L. Davis, David Eastman, Heather McPhillips, Marsha A. Raebel, et al.. "Risks of congenital malformations and perinatal events among infants exposed to calcium channel and beta-blockers during pregnancy" Vol. 20 Iss. 2 (2011) ISSN: 1053-8569 (Linking)
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