The impact of various supplemental carbon sources (oxalate, glyoxylate, glycolate, pyruvate, formate, malate, acetate, and succinate) on growth and oxalate formation (i.e., oxalogenesis) by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum was studied. With isolates D-E7, 105, W-B10, and Arg-L of S. sclerotiorum, growth in an undefined broth medium (0.1% soytone; pH 5) with 25 mM glucose and 25 mM supplemental carbon source was increased by the addition of malate and succinate. Oxalate accumulation occurred in the presence of glucose and a supplemental carbon source, with malate, acetate, and succinate supporting the most oxalate synthesis. With S. sclerotiorum Arg-L, oxalate-to-biomass ratios, an indicator of oxalogenic potential, were dissimilar when the organism was grown in the presence of different carbon sources. The highest oxalate-to-biomass ratios were observed with pyruvate, formate, malate, acetate, and succinate. Time-course studies with acetate-supplemented cultures revealed that acetate and glucose consumption by S. sclerotiorum D-E7 coincided with oxalogenesis and culture acidification. By day 5 of incubation, oxalogenesis was halted when cultures reached a pH of 3 and were devoid of acetate. In succinate-supplemented cultures, oxalogenesis essentially paralleled glucose and succinate utilization over the 9-day incubation period; during this time period, culture pH declined but never fell below 4. Overall, these results indicate that carbon sources can regulate the accumulation of oxalate, a key pathogenicity determinant for S. sclerotiorum.
- Sclerotinia sclerotiorum,
- Oxalate synthesis,
- Phytopathogenic fungus,
- Carbon source,
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