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Periodontal disease in pregnancy complicated by type 1 diabetes mellitus
Journal of periodontology
  • J. M. Guthmiller
  • J. R. Hassebroek-Johnson
  • D. R. Weenig
  • G. K. Johnson
  • H. L. Kirchner
  • F. J. Kohout
  • Stephen K. Hunter, University of Iowa
Document Type
Peer Reviewed
Publication Date
NLM Title Abbreviation
J Periodontol
PubMed ID
DOI of Published Version
BACKGROUND: Systemic disease and hormonal changes have been implicated as complicating factors for periodontal disease. Diabetes has been identified as a risk factor for periodontal disease, and diabetics can experience periodontal destruction at an earlier age than non-diabetic individuals. Increased hormone levels during pregnancy can contribute to increased gingival inflammation. The purpose of this study was to examine the association of type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM) on the periodontal status of pregnant women. METHODS: Thirty-three (13 diabetic and 20 non-diabetic) subjects, 20 to 39 weeks gestation, participated in this study. The mean age of the diabetics and non-diabetics was 28.5 +/- 7.1 (SD) and 27.0 +/- 7.3 years, respectively. The following parameters were assessed at Ramfjord's reference teeth: plaque index (PI), gingival inflammation (GI), probing depth (PD), gingival margin (GM) location, and clinical attachment level (CAL). RESULTS: Diabetic subjects had significantly (P<0.001) higher PI (1.48 +/- 0.69) and GI (1.77 +/- 0.44) scores than non-diabetics (PI = 0.63 +/- 0.38; GI = 0.93 +/- 0.48). Mean PD for diabetics (2.95 +/- 0.69 mm) was significantly different (P<0.024) from that of non-diabetics (2.44 +/- 0.32 mm). Although mean GM location was coronal to the cemento-enamel junction (CEJ) in both groups, gingival margins were at a more apical position (P<0.001) in the diabetics (-0.20 +/- 1.24 mm) compared to non-diabetics (-1.76 +/- 0.53 mm). Mean CAL values also varied significantly (P<0.001) between diabetics (2.60 +/- 1.54 mm) and non-diabetics (0.68 +/- 0.65 mm). Significant differences were seen for GI (P<0.001), PD (P=0.005), GM location (P<0.001), and CAL (P<0.001) when assessing the effect of diabetes and controlling for plaque. When assessing the effect of plaque and controlling for diabetes, the only significant difference was GI (P=0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study demonstrate that periodontal inflammation and destruction are increased in pregnant diabetics as compared to non-diabetic pregnant patients. These findings may have implications for diabetic control and, hence, maternal and fetal outcomes in pregnant diabetic patients.
  • Adult,
  • Analysis of Variance,
  • Dental Plaque Index,
  • Diabetes Mellitus,
  • Type 1/complications,
  • Female,
  • Gingiva/pathology,
  • Gingival Recession/classification,
  • Gingivitis/classification,
  • Humans,
  • Periodontal Attachment Loss/classification,
  • Periodontal Diseases/classification/etiology,
  • Periodontal Index,
  • Periodontal Pocket/classification,
  • Pregnancy,
  • Pregnancy Complications,
  • Pregnancy in Diabetics,
  • Risk Factors,
  • Single-Blind Method,
  • Statistics as Topic,
  • Tooth Cervix/pathology
Published Article/Book Citation
Journal of periodontology, 72:11 (2001) pp.1485-1490.
Citation Information
J. M. Guthmiller, J. R. Hassebroek-Johnson, D. R. Weenig, G. K. Johnson, et al.. "Periodontal disease in pregnancy complicated by type 1 diabetes mellitus" Journal of periodontology Vol. 72 Iss. 11 (2001) p. 1485 - 1490 ISSN: 0022-3492
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