Skip to main content
Myofunctional and Dentofacial Relationships in Second Grade Children.
Angle Orthodontist
  • Alan M. Gross
  • G. D. Kellum
  • S. T. Hale
  • Stephen C. Messer, Nova Southeastern University
  • B. A. Benson
  • S. L. Sisakun
  • F. W. Bishop
Document Type
Publication Date
  • Cephalometry,
  • Child,
  • Deglutition,
  • Face,
  • Facial Bones,
  • Facial Muscles,
  • Lip,
  • Malocclusion,
  • Mississippi,
  • Mouth Breathing,
  • Reproducibility of Results,
  • Speech Disorders,
  • Tongue Habits.
One hundred and thirty-three second graders in rural public school were assessed on a number of dental, skeletal, and oral muscle function measures. Correlational analyses were conducted in order to determine whether specific myofunctional variables were associated with dentofacial development. Significant relationships were observed between open mouth posture and a narrow maxillary arch and long facial height. Labial and lingual rest and swallow patterns were also related to poor coordination of lip and tongue movements.
Citation Information
Alan M. Gross, G. D. Kellum, S. T. Hale, Stephen C. Messer, et al.. "Myofunctional and Dentofacial Relationships in Second Grade Children." Angle Orthodontist Vol. 60 Iss. 4 (1990) p. 247 - 254 ISSN: 0003-3219
Available at: