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The Interconnections Project: Development and Evaluation of a Community-Based Depression Program for African American Violence Survivors
Journal of General Internal Medicine (2013)
  • Christina Nicolaidis, Oregon Health & Science University
  • Stéphanie Wahab, Portland State University
  • Jammie Trimble, Bradley Angle House
  • Angie Mejia, Portland State University
  • S. Rene Mitchell, Interconnections Community Partner at Large
  • Dora Raymaker, Oregon Health & Science University
  • Mary Jo Thomas, Multnomah County Department of Mental Health and Addictions
  • Vanessa Timmons, Interconnections Community Partner at Large
  • A. Star Waters, Interconnections Community Partner at Large
BACKGROUND: Multi-faceted depression care programs based within the healthcare system have been found to be effective, but may not fully address the needs of African American Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) survivors, many of whom are not seeking depression care in healthcare settings. OBJECTIVES: To develop and evaluate a multifaceted, community-based depression care program (the Interconnections Project) for African American women with a history of IPV. METHODS: We used a community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach to develop, implement, and evaluate the intervention. Participants were African American women who had current depressive symptoms and a lifetime history of IPV. They participated in a 6-month intervention where a peer advocate provided education, skills training, and case management services, and used Motivational Interviewing to support self-management behaviors. We conducted pre-intervention and post-intervention assessments using quantitative and qualitative data. RESULTS: Fifty-nine women participated, with 92 % attending any sessions and 51 % attending at least 6 h of intervention activities. Intervention changes made to better accommodate participants' unpredictable schedules improved participation rates. Participants noted high levels of satisfaction with the program. There were significant improvements in depression severity (PHQ-9 13.9 to 7.9, p < 0.001), self-efficacy, self-management behaviors, and self-esteem (all p < 0.001), but no increase in use of antidepressants. Common themes related to why the program was helpful included that the program was by and for African American women, that it fostered trust, and that it taught self-management strategies with practical, lasting value. CONCLUSION: Culturally specific, community-based interventions led by peer advocates may be a promising way to help African American IPV survivors effectively address depression.
Publication Date
April, 2013
Citation Information
Nicolaidis, C., Wahab, S., Trimble, J. et al. J GEN INTERN MED (2013) 28: 530.