Foals can have angular and flexural limb deformities with or without a rotational component. Most foals are born with at least some degree of limb deformity of either type, and carpal valgus is the most frequently encountered type. Methods employed to surgically correct angular limb deformities include hemicircumferential transection of periosteum and periosteal elevation (or periosteal stripping) and transphyseal bridging (or growth retardation). Transphyseal bridging is accomplished with screws and wires, staples, or with a lag screw across the physis. Combinations of stripping and growth retardation have also been used. Corrective trimming of the hoof is almost always recommended, and owners are instructed to restrict exercise.
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