Certain flavonoids have been shown to have specific effects on biochemical and metabolic functions of adipocytes. In this study, we investigated the effects of combinations of resveratrol and quercetin on adipogenesis and apoptosis in 3T3-L1 cells. In maturing preadipocytes resveratrol and quercetin at 25Â Î¼M individually suppressed intracellular lipid accumulation by 9.4 Â± 3.9% (p < 0.01) and 15.9 Â± 2.5%, respectively, (p < 0.001). The combination of resveratrol and quercetin at the same dose, however, decreased lipid accumulation by 68.6 Â± 0.7% (p < 0.001). In addition, combinations of resveratrol and quercetin at 25Â Î¼M significantly decreased the expression of peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor gamma (PPARÎ³) and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP)Î±, both of which act as key transcription factors. In mature adipocytes resveratrol and quercetin at 100Â Î¼M individually decreased viability by 18.1 Â± 0.6% (p < 0.001) and 15.8 Â± 1% (p < 0.001) and increased apoptosis (100Â Î¼M) by 120.5 Â± 8.3% (p < 0.001) and 85.3 Â± 10% (p < 0.001) at 48Â h, respectively. Combinations of resveratrol and quercetin further decreased viability (73.5 Â± 0.9%, p < 0.001) and increased apoptosis (310.3 Â± 9.6%, p < 0.001) more than single compounds alone. The combination of resveratrol and quercetin at 100Â Î¼M increased release of cytochrome c from mitochondria to cytosol and decreased ERK 1/2 phosphorylation. Taken together, our data indicate that combinations of resveratrol and quercetin can exert potential anti-obesity effects by inhibiting differentiation of preadipocytes and inducing apoptosis of mature adipocytes. Â© 2008 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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