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Locus of control and well-being at work : how generalizable are Western findings?
The Academy of Management Journal
  • Paul E. SPECTOR, University of South Florida
  • Cary L. COOPER, University of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology
  • Juan I. SANCHEZ, Florida International University
  • Michael O'DRISCOLL, University of Waikato
  • Kate SPARKS, University of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology
  • Peggy BERNIN, National Institute for Psychosocial Factors and Health
  • André BÜSSING, Technical University of Miinchen
  • Philip DEWE, Massey University
  • Peter HART
  • Luo LU, Kaohsiung Medical University
  • Karen MILLER, University of Witwatersrand
  • Lucio Renault DE MORAES, Federal University of Minas Gerais
  • Gabrielle M. OSTROGNAY
  • Milan PAGON, University of Ljubljana; University of Maribar
  • Horea D. PITARIU, Babes-Bolyai University
  • Steven A. Y. POELMANS, University of Navarra
  • Phani RADHAKRISHNAN, University of Texas at El Paso
  • Vesselina RUSSINOVA, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences
  • Vladimir SALAMATOV, Ukrainian Academy of Public Administration
  • Jesús F. SALGADO, University of Santiago
  • Satoru SHIMA, Tokyo Keizai University
  • Oi Ling SIU, Lingnan University, Hong Kong
  • Jean Benjamin STORA, Hautes Etudes Commerciales Groupe
  • Mare TEICHMANN, Tallinn Technical University
  • Töres THEORELL, National Institute for Psychosocial Factors and Health, Sweden
  • Peter VLERICK, University of Ghent
  • Mina WESTMAN, Tel Aviv University
  • Maria WIDERSZAL-BAZYL, Central Institute for Labor Protection, Poland
  • T. P., Paul WONG, Trinity Western University
  • Shanfa YU, Henan Institute of Occupational Medicine
Document Type
Journal article
Publication Date
Academy of Management
  • Locus of control; quality of work life; job satisfaction; job stress; well-being; employee morale; employees attitudes; management research; job enrichment; personnel management

Managers from 24 geopolitical entities provided data on work locus of control, job satisfaction, psychological strain, physical strain, and individualism/collectivism. The hypothesis that the salutary effects of perceived control on well-being are universal was supported because relations of work locus of control with well-being at work were similar in almost all the sampled areas. Furthermore, the individualism/collectivism level of each sample did not moderate the magnitude of correlations of work locus of control with measures of well-being. Findings indicate that control beliefs contribute to well-being universally, but we suggest that how control is manifested can still differ.

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Citation Information
Spector, P. E., Cooper, C. L., Sanchez, J. I., O'Driscoll, M., Sparks, K., Bermin, P,...Yu, S. (2002). Locus of control and well-being at work: How generalizable are Western findings? Academy of Management Journal, 45(2), 453-466. doi: 10.5465/3069359