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Locus of control and well-being at work : how generalizable are Western findings?
The Academy of Management Journal
  • Paul E. SPECTOR
  • Cary L. COOPER
  • Juan I. SANCHEZ
  • Michael O'DRISCOLL
  • Kate SPARKS
  • Peggy BERNIN
  • André BÜSSING
  • Philip DEWE
  • Peter HART
  • Luo LU
  • Karen MILLER
  • Lucio Renault DE MORAES
  • Gabrielle M. OSTROGNAY
  • Milan PAGON
  • Horea D. PITARIU
  • Steven A. Y. POELMANS
  • Vesselina RUSSINOVA
  • Vladimir SALAMATOV
  • Jesús F. SALGADO
  • Satoru SHIMA
  • Oi Ling SIU, Lingnan University, Hong Kong
  • Jean Benjamin STORA
  • Töres THEORELL
  • Peter VLERICK
  • Mina WESTMAN
  • T. P., Paul WONG
  • Shanfa YU
Document Type
Journal article
Publication Date
  • Locus of control; quality of work life; job satisfaction; job stress; well-being; employee morale; employees attitudes; management research; job enrichment; personnel management

Managers from 24 geopolitical entities provided data on work locus of control, job satisfaction, psychological strain, physical strain, and individualism/collectivism. The hypothesis that the salutary effects of perceived control on well-being are universal was supported because relations of work locus of control with well-being at work were similar in almost all the sampled areas. Furthermore, the individualism/collectivism level of each sample did not moderate the magnitude of correlations of work locus of control with measures of well-being. Findings indicate that control beliefs contribute to well-being universally, but we suggest that how control is manifested can still differ.

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Citation Information
Spector, P. E., Cooper, C. L., Sanchez, J. I., O'Driscoll, M., Sparks, K., Bermin, P,...Yu, S. (2002). Locus of control and well-being at work: How generalizable are Western findings? Academy of Management Journal, 45(2), 453-466. doi: 10.2307/3069359