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An international study of the psychometric properties of the Hofstede Values Survey Module 1994 : a comparison of individual and country/province level results
Applied Psychology: An International Review
  • Paul E. SPECTOR
  • Cary L. COOPER
  • Kate SPARKS
  • Peggy BERNIN
  • André BÜSSING
  • Phil DEWE
  • Luo LU
  • Karen MILLER
  • Lucio Renault DE MORAES
  • Michael O'DRISCOLL
  • Milan PAGON
  • Horia PITARIU
  • Steven POELMANS
  • Vladimir SALAMATOV
  • Jesus SALGADO
  • Juan I. SANCHEZ
  • Satoru SHIMA
  • Oi Ling SIU, Lingnan University, Hong Kong
  • Jean Benjamin STORA
  • Tores THEORELL
  • Peter VLERICK
  • Mina WESTMAN
  • Paul WONG
  • Shanfa YU
Document Type
Journal article
Publication Date
Hofstede’s Values Survey Module has been the basis for much cross-cultural and cross-national research in the workplace, but little information about its psychometric properties has been available. This study provides internal consistency (coefficient alpha) statistics from samples representing 23 nations/provinces. Across both English and translated versions, internal consistencies tended to be poor, and in the majority of cases failed to achieve even a liberal criterion of 0.60. Even when data were aggregated by sample coefficient alphas were poor for all but long-term orientation. At the participant level, long-term orientation and individualism had marginal internal consistencies, whereas power distance, masculinity, and uncertainty avoidance subscales had inadequate internal consistencies. A replication of Hofstede’s ecological factor analysis failed to support the five subscales. It is suggested that the construct validity of these scales is suspect, and that they should be used with caution.
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Copyright © International Association for Applied Psychology, 2001

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Citation Information
Spector, P. E., Cooper, C. L., Sparks, K., Bernin, P., Bussing, A., Dewe, P,...Yu, S. (2001). An international study of the psychometric properties of the Hofstede Values Survey Module 1994: A comparison of individual and country/province level results. Applied Psychology, 50(2), 269-281. doi: 10.1111/1464-0597.00058