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Do national levels of individualism and internal locus of control relate to well-being : an ecological level international study
Journal of Organizational Behavior
  • Paul E. SPECTOR
  • Cary L. COOPER
  • Juan I. SANCHEZ
  • Michael O'DRISCOLL
  • Kate SPARKS
  • Peggy BERNIN
  • André BÜSSING
  • Phil DEWE
  • Peter HART
  • Luo LU
  • Karen MILLER
  • Lucio Flavio Renault DE MORAES
  • Gabrielle M. OSTROGNAY
  • Milan PAGON
  • Horea PITARIU
  • Steven POELMANS
  • Vesselina RUSSINOVA
  • Vladimir SALAMATOV
  • Jesus SALGADO
  • Satoru SHIMA
  • Oi Ling SIU, Lingnan University, Hong Kong
  • Jean Benjamin STORA
  • Tores THEORELL
  • Peter VLERICK
  • Mina WESTMAN
  • Paul WONG
  • Shanfa YU
Document Type
Journal article
Publication Date
Data were collected from managers in 24 nations/territories on work locus of control (LOC), individualism-collectivism (I-C), and well-being (job satisfaction, absence of psychological strain, and absence of physical strain). There were significant mean differences across samples on all five of these measures, and consistent with the hypothesis, at the ecological or sample mean level well-being was associated with an internal locus of control. However, well-being was not associated with I-C, despite a strong correlation between I-C and LOC.
Publisher Statement

Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd

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Additional Information
Paper presented at the Southern Management Association 2003 Annual Meeting, Clearwater Beach, Florida, November 12-15, 2003.
Full-text Version
Accepted Author Manuscript
Citation Information
Spector, P. E., Cooper, C. L., Sanchez, J. I., O'driscoll, M., Sparks, K., Bernin, P,...Yu, S. (2001). Do national levels of individualism and internal locus of control relate to well-being: An ecological level international study. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 22(8), 815-832. doi: 10.1002/job.118