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Do national levels of individualism and internal locus of control relate to well-being : an ecological level international study
Journal of Organizational Behavior
  • Paul E. SPECTOR, University of South Florida
  • Cary L. COOPER, University of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology
  • Juan I. SANCHEZ, Florida International University
  • Michael O'DRISCOLL, University of Waikato, New Zealand
  • Kate SPARKS, University of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology
  • Peggy BERNIN, National Institute for Psychosocial Factors and Health
  • André BÜSSING, Technical University of Munchen
  • Phil DEWE, Massey University
  • Peter HART
  • Luo LU, Kaohsiung Medical University
  • Karen MILLER, University of Witwatersrand
  • Lucio Flavio Renault DE MORAES, Federal University of Minas Gerais
  • Gabrielle M. OSTROGNAY
  • Milan PAGON, College of Police and Security Studies
  • Horea PITARIU, Babes-Bolyai University
  • Steven POELMANS, University of Navarra
  • Phani RADHAKRISHNAN, University of Toronto at Scarborough
  • Vesselina RUSSINOVA, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences
  • Vladimir SALAMATOV, Ukrainian Academy of Public Administration
  • Jesus SALGADO, University of Santiago
  • Satoru SHIMA, Tokyo Keizai University
  • Oi Ling SIU, Lingnan University, Hong Kong
  • Jean Benjamin STORA, Hautes Etudes Commerciales Groupe
  • Mare TEICHMANN, Tallinn Technical University
  • Tores THEORELL, National Institute for Psychosocial Factors and Health
  • Peter VLERICK, Ghent University
  • Mina WESTMAN, Tel Aviv University
  • Maria WIDERSZAL-BAZYL, Central Institute for Labour Protection
  • Paul WONG, Trinity Western University
  • Shanfa YU, Henan Institute of Occupational Medicine
Document Type
Journal article
Publication Date
John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Data were collected from managers in 24 nations/territories on work locus of control (LOC), individualism-collectivism (I-C), and well-being (job satisfaction, absence of psychological strain, and absence of physical strain). There were significant mean differences across samples on all five of these measures, and consistent with the hypothesis, at the ecological or sample mean level well-being was associated with an internal locus of control. However, well-being was not associated with I-C, despite a strong correlation between I-C and LOC.

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Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd

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Additional Information
Paper presented at the Southern Management Association 2003 Annual Meeting, Clearwater Beach, Florida, November 12-15, 2003.
Full-text Version
Accepted Author Manuscript
Citation Information
Spector, P. E., Cooper, C. L., Sanchez, J. I., O'driscoll, M., Sparks, K., Bernin, P,...Yu, S. (2001). Do national levels of individualism and internal locus of control relate to well-being: An ecological level international study. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 22(8), 815-832. doi: 10.1002/job.118