Sudden death syndrome (SDS) caused by Fusarium virguliforme is one of the major yield-limiting soil borne diseases of soybean (Glycine max). The SDS has been reported from 21 U.S. states and is known to occur in Africa, North America, and South America. In the U.S. the losses due to SDS was estimated at $3.06 billion for a period from 1988 to 2010. Since 1983, several management approaches have been investigated to reduce SDS and yet, continued efforts are necessary to develop long term disease management programs and to sustain disease below economic threshold levels. Integrating available control measures is an option, but adaptability and real-world assessments are equally important. Support of several funding agencies to better understand the disease in identifying suitable control measures to reduce yield losses in commercial cultivations has been indispensable in accomplishing these goals. In spite of sustained efforts, SDS continued to spread within the U.S. and reported in seven other countries since its first report in 1971. Comprehensive reviews have previously been published on this disease by Roy et al. , Leandro et al. , and Hartman et al. . In this review, updated information on geographic distribution and economic significance of SDS, epidemiology, factors affecting SDS, and management options for SDS including screening techniques have been compiled. Also, discussed significant gaps in use of plant, fungi and bacteria based biocontrol agents in addressing management of SDS.
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