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Lion-tailed Macaques (Macaca silenus) in a Disturbed Forest Fragment: Activity Patterns and Time Budget
International Journal of Primatology (1996)
  • Shaily Menon, University of Massachusetts - Boston
  • Frank E Poirier, The Ohio State University
We describe the activity patterns and time budget of a feral group of lion-tailed macaques that were confined to a disturbed forest fragment of 65 ha and compare the results with those obtained for groups in protected forests. The degraded nature of the study site was reflected in low tree densities, low specific diversity, gaps in the girth distribution of trees, and frequent disturbance by humans. The study group of 43 subjects was twice as large as lion-tailed macaque groups in protected habitats. They spent the most time ranging (34.0%), followed by foraging (23.7%), feeding (17.9%), resting (16.0%), and other activities such as social interactions (8.4%). Monthly variations are significant for all activity categories except ranging. Times spent resting and foraging are negatively correlated (r=-0.5) and show significant seasonal differences. Foraging time was highest from September to November, when key food sources such as Cullenia and Artopcarpus were absent or marginally available. The study group spent most time (40.4%) at canopy levels between 21 and 30 m. They spent more time each day ranging than resting or feeding and more time terrestrially compared with groups in protected forests. Large group size, poor habitat quality, and seasonal variation in food availability were the major variables affecting their time budget, and these variables accounted for differences from the time budgets of groups in protected forests. "The original publication is available at"
  • lion-tailed macaque,
  • Macaca silenus,
  • forest fragment,
  • time budget
Publication Date
Citation Information
Shaily Menon and Frank E Poirier. "Lion-tailed Macaques (Macaca silenus) in a Disturbed Forest Fragment: Activity Patterns and Time Budget" International Journal of Primatology Vol. 17 Iss. 6 (1996)
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