As the human population and incomes continue to grow while the petroleum reserve is declining and the concerns about environmental damage are increasing, the world community is challenged to supply ever-greater quantities of energy without harming the environment. The world primary energy demand is predicted to more than double between 2006 and 2030, and yet most oil-producing countries will reduce output over that period (IEA 2008). OPEC’s share of total oil production will grow from 41 to 51%, and the oil production growth will need to come mostly from the small number of countries that own remaining oil resources.
- agricultural productivity,
- land-use change
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