Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are used extensively for analgesic and antipyretic treatments. In addition, NSAIDs reduce the risk and mortality to several cancers. Their mechanisms in anti-tumorigenesis are not fully understood, but both cyclooxygenase (COX)-dependent and -independent pathways play a role. We and others have been interested in elucidating molecular targets of NSAID-induced apoptosis. In this review, we summarize updated literature regarding cellular and molecular targets modulated by NSAIDs. Among those NSAIDs, sulindac sulfide and tolfenamic acid are emphasized in this review because these two drugs have been well investigated for their anti-tumorigenic activity in many different types of cancer.
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