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Tracking Apex Marine Predator Movements in a Dynamic Ocean
Nature (2011)
  • B A Block, Stanford University
  • I D Jonsen, Dalhousie University
  • S J Jorgensen, Stanford University
  • A J Winship, Dalhousie University
  • Scott A Shaffer, San Jose State University
  • S J Bograd
  • E L Hazen
  • D G Foley
  • G A Breed, Dalhousie University
  • A -L Harrison, University of California, Santa Cruz
  • J E Ganong, Stanford University
  • A Swithenbank, Stanford University
  • M Castleton, Stanford University
  • H Dewar
  • B R Mate, Oregon State University
  • G L Shillinger, Stanford University
  • K M Schaefer
  • S R Benson
  • M J Weise, University of California, Santa Cruz
  • R W Henry, University of California, Santa Cruz
  • D P Costa, University of California, Santa Cruz
elagic marine predators face unprecedented challenges and uncertain futures. Overexploitation and climate variability impact the abundance and distribution of top predators in ocean ecosystems. Improved understanding of ecological patterns, evolutionary constraints and ecosystem function is critical for preventing extinctions, loss of biodiversity and disruption of ecosystem services. Recent advances in electronic tagging techniques have provided the capacity to observe the movements and long-distance migrations of animals in relation to ocean processes across a range of ecological scales. Tagging of Pacific Predators, a field programme of the Census of Marine Life, deployed 4,306 tags on 23 species in the North Pacific Ocean, resulting in a tracking data set of unprecedented scale and species diversity that covers 265,386 tracking days from 2000 to 2009. Here we report migration pathways, link ocean features to multispecies hotspots and illustrate niche partitioning within and among congener guilds. Our results indicate that the California Current large marine ecosystem and the North Pacific transition zone attract and retain a diverse assemblage of marine vertebrates. Within the California Current large marine ecosystem, several predator guilds seasonally undertake north–south migrations that may be driven by oceanic processes, species-specific thermal tolerances and shifts in prey distributions. We identify critical habitats across multinational boundaries and show that top predators exploit their environment in predictable ways, providing the foundation for spatial management of large marine ecosystems.
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Citation Information
B A Block, I D Jonsen, S J Jorgensen, A J Winship, et al.. "Tracking Apex Marine Predator Movements in a Dynamic Ocean" Nature Vol. 475 (2011)
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