Skip to main content
Program Transformations for Information Personalization
Computer Languages, Systems and Structures
  • Saverio Perugini, University of Dayton
  • Naren Ramakrishnan, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University
Document Type
Publication Date
Personalization constitutes the mechanisms necessary to automatically customize information content, structure, and presentation to the end user to reduce information overload. Unlike traditional approaches to personalization, the central theme of our approach is to model a website as a program and conduct website transformation for personalization by program transformation (e.g., partial evaluation, program slicing). The goal of this paper is study personalization through a program transformation lens and develop a formal model, based on program transformations, for personalized interaction with hierarchical hypermedia. The specific research issues addressed involve identifying and developing program representations and transformations suitable for classes of hierarchical hypermedia and providing supplemental interactions for improving the personalized experience. The primary form of personalization discussed is out-of-turn interaction—a technique that empowers a user navigating a hierarchical website to postpone clicking on any of the hyperlinks presented on the current page and, instead, communicate the label of a hyperlink nested deeper in the hierarchy. When the user supplies out-of-turn input, we personalize the hierarchy to reflect the user's informational need. While viewing a website as a program and site transformation as program transformation is non-traditional, it offers a new way of thinking about personalized interaction, especially with hierarchical hypermedia. Our use of program transformations casts personalization in a formal setting and provides a systematic and implementation-neutral approach to designing systems. Moreover, this approach helped connect our work to human-computer dialog management and, in particular, mixed-initiative interaction. Putting personalized web interaction on a fundamentally different landscape gave birth to this new line of research. Relating concepts in the web domain (e.g., sites, interactions) to notions in the program-theoretic domain (e.g., programs, transformations) constitutes the creativity in this work.
Inclusive pages
Document Version

Paper in repository is the author's accepted version. Article in its final published form is available from the publisher.

Peer Reviewed
  • Hierarchical hypermedia,
  • Information personalization,
  • Navigation,
  • Out-of-turn interaction,
  • Program transformations,
  • Partial evaluation,
  • Program slicing,
  • Web interaction,
  • Web mining,
  • Website transformation
Citation Information
Saverio Perugini and Naren Ramakrishnan. "Program Transformations for Information Personalization" Computer Languages, Systems and Structures Vol. 36 Iss. 3 (2010)
Available at: