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Rubrics as a Tool in Writing Instruction: Effects on the Opinion Essays of First and Second Graders.
Early Childhood Education Journal (2016)
  • Kendall L. Bradford
  • Amanda C. Newland
  • Audrey C. Rule, University of Northern Iowa
  • Sarah E. Montgomery
Recently-adopted standards call for more emphasis on writing in early elementary grades. Rubrics may assist students in attending to important characteristics of effective writing, but research data on their use in early childhood is lacking. This study explores the effects of rubric use on writing instruction of opinion paragraphs for 20 first grade students (9 female, 11 male; 11 Black, 4 White, 4 Hispanic, 1 Asian; 8 English Language Learners) and 12 second grade students (7 male, 5 female; 6 Black, 2 Hispanic, 2 Middle Eastern, 1 Asian, 1 White; 0 English Language Learners) from a low socio-economic Mid-western United States elementary school that was designated a School in Need of Assistance. The stratified-grouped, counterbalanced pretest-midpoint test-posttest study determined if providing a rubric and instructing students on how to use it, in addition to teaching writing mini-lessons regarding specific areas of the rubric, would improve student writing scores compared to the mini lessons alone. Also, data were collected on student attitudes throughout the study.
  • Writing skills,
  • Rubrics,
  • Elementary students,
  • Attitudes toward writing
Publication Date
September 1, 2016
Citation Information
Kendall L. Bradford, Amanda C. Newland, Audrey C. Rule and Sarah E. Montgomery. "Rubrics as a Tool in Writing Instruction: Effects on the Opinion Essays of First and Second Graders." Early Childhood Education Journal Vol. 44 Iss. 5 (2016) p. 463 - 472
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