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Adaptation to Stress Induced by Restraining Rats and Mice in Nose-Only Inhalation Holders
Inhalation Toxicology (2003)
  • Sandy P. Narciso-Owen, Sacred Heart University
  • Elizabeth Nadziejko
  • Lung Chi Chen
  • Terry Gordon
  • Christine Nadziejko
There are limited data on the efficacy of procedures for adapting rodents to restraint in nose-only holders. We examined: (1) What effect does restraint in nose-only holders have on heart rate and body temperature? (2) Does a gradual increase in the duration of restraint facilitate adaptation? (3) How long does it take for rodents to become fully adapted to nose-only holders? (4) Do rats and mice respond and adapt similarly to restraint in nose only holders? Heart rate and body temperature were monitored as measures of stress using electrocardiograph (ECG) transmitters in male C57Bl/6J mice and Sprague-Dawley rats. In naive animals during the first hour of restraint, heart rate increased by 58 beats per minute (BPM) (18.6%) in rats and by 174 BPM (32.3%) in mice as compared to cage controls. Temperature increased by 2°C in mice and was unchanged in rats compared to cage controls. Heart rate and temperature values remained within normal physiologic values during restraint. In rats, the response to restraint in nose-only holders was the same after 4 days regardless of whether the duration of restraint was increased gradually to 4 h/day or kept constant at 4 h/day. In mice, the group that was gradually adapted had a statistically significant higher heart rate and temperature after 4 days than the fixed-duration adapted group. Rats and mice restrained for 4 h/day every day showed a gradual decrease in heart rate and temperature over time. Full adaptation to restraint required 14 days of fixed-duration daily restraint.

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Citation Information
Narciso, S.P., Elizabeth Nadziejko, Lung Chi Chen, Terry Gordon & Christine Nadziejko (2003). Adaptation to stress induced by restraining rats and mice in nose-only inhalation holders. Inhalation Toxicology, 15(11), 1133-1143. DOI: 10.1080/08958370390228592