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Unpublished Paper
Educational Reformer & Christian Soldier: General Oliver Otis Howard
  • Samuel J. Smith
Contemporaries of Oliver Otis Howard and historians alike have disagreed on the degree of his success as a Civil War general and as commissioner of the Freedmen’s Bureau.  Some describe his performance as inept and others as skillful.  Some laud his Christian example while others believe that he allowed his religious and political beliefs to diminish his efforts.  Whatever one’s perspective, evidence indicates that Howard’s political and religious beliefs influenced his actions as Civil War general and as Freedmen’s Bureau commissioner, and—although he experienced some failure in both arenas—his leadership is exemplified by what may be remembered as his finest hours in the battle of Gettysburg and in the development of African-American education.
  • Howard University,
  • Freedmen's Bureau,
  • Civil War,
  • History of American Education
Publication Date
Citation Information
Samuel J. Smith. "Educational Reformer & Christian Soldier: General Oliver Otis Howard" (2019)
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