This study examines the validity of the short form (eight items) Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D), as a screening tool for mental health problems among older immigrants who are minorities. The factor structure of the CES-D is examined empirically using two samples of older Asian Indian immigrants in the United States: the first sample of 226 English speakers, and the second sample of 114 Gujarati speakers residing in Atlanta, Georgia. The CES-D, administered via telephone interviews, showed high internal consistency. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses for the English speaking sample showed two factors indicating positive and negative affect, whereas the Gujarati-speaking sample yielded a unidimensional factor where depression was not differentiated, suggesting that depression may be conceptualized and manifested differently among diverse groups of older immigrants. Culturally competent practice with older adults should include an awareness of these within-group differences and their implications for practice in diverse groups of older immigrants.
Available at: http://works.bepress.com/sadhna_diwan/13/