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Unpublished Paper
Title IX: The Trojan Horse in the Struggle for Female Athletic Coaches to Attain Equal Opportunities in Intercollegiate Sports
ExpressO (2011)
  • Ryan Richman, Rutgers University - Newark

The enactment of Title IX of the Education Amendments Acts of the 1970s has significantly altered the framework of females in coaching athletic teams. The purpose of Title IX is to provide all women with educational opportunities in both the academic and athletic realm. Generally, Title IX is thought to have been an enormous advancement for females participating in athletics, but as my note explores, it has not been effective in all areas, particularly intercollegiate female coaches. In fact, it is quite the opposite, and since the enactment of Title IX, the number of female coaches has been cut almost in half. My note argues that current regulations and enforcement of Title IX has proven to be ineffective in combating discrimination against female coaches and lacks proper remedies and punishment for violations of the statute.

Specifically, my note addresses the inadequacies of Title IV in attempting to help female coaches. It investigates why women have traditionally been unable to obtain coaching positions before and after Title IX’s enactment and pretextual reasons that turn women away from coaching. Further, my note explains and discusses, in depth, the two specific sections of Title IX that effect female coaches, details Title IX’s three-prong test for compliance, discusses the inadequate penalties, problems, and critiques of the three-prong test, and traces Title IX litigation and employment discrimination for female coaches. Further, my note examines a case study concerning female reporters gaining access to male locker rooms, emphasizing that equal opportunity in sports is an industry wide predicament. My note concludes by making suggestions for new regulations and remedies to be enacted to cure the inadequacies of Title IX, such as the withdrawal of federal funding from institutions in violation of Title IX. The key is to strike a balance between giving institutions an incentive to be in compliance with Title IX and offer women equal opportunities, while at the same time, not reducing an institution’s federal funding too drastically as to counteract Title IX’s goals. My note proposes that the current system will only lead to more discrimination for female coaches if nothing is changed.

  • sports coaches,
  • sports teams,
  • athletic teams,
  • college sports,
  • female coaches,
  • women coaches,
  • women equality,
  • Title IX
Publication Date
February 23, 2011
Citation Information
Ryan Richman. "Title IX: The Trojan Horse in the Struggle for Female Athletic Coaches to Attain Equal Opportunities in Intercollegiate Sports" ExpressO (2011)
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