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Risk factors for vitamin D deficiency and relationship with cardiac biomarkers, inflammation and immune restoration in HIV-infected youth
Antiviral Therapy
  • A. R. Eckard
  • S. E. Judd
  • T. R. Ziegler
  • A. F. Camacho-Gonzalez
  • A. M. Fitzpatrick
  • G. R. Hadley
  • Ruth E. Grossmann, University of Iowa
  • L. Seaton
  • S. Seydafkan
  • M. J. Mulligan
  • N. Rimann
  • V. Tangpricha
  • G. A. McComsey
Document Type
Peer Reviewed
Publication Date
NLM Title Abbreviation
Antivir Ther
PubMed ID
DOI of Published Version
BACKGROUND: Vitamin D deficiency is common in HIV-infected individuals. In adults, traditional and HIV-related factors play a role in vitamin D status, and deficiency appears to impair immune restoration and exacerbate HIV complications, like cardiovascular disease (CVD). This study sought to determine factors contributing to vitamin D status in HIV-infected youth and investigate the relationship with CVD risk, inflammation and immune restoration. METHODS: HIV-infected subjects (1-25 years old) were enrolled prospectively along with healthy controls that were group-matched by age, sex and race. HIV data were collected for the HIV-infected group, while traditional risk factors, including vitamin D intake, sun exposure, skin pigmentation, physical activity level and body mass index (BMI) were collected for both groups. Fasting lipids, plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D), and inflammation markers were measured. RESULTS: In total, 200 HIV-infected subjects and 50 controls were enrolled. HIV group had 53% male, 95% Black and a mean age of 17.2 +/-4.6 years. There was no difference in 25(OH)D between groups; 77% of HIV+ and 74% of controls had 25(OH)D<20 ng/ml. Only Fitzpatrick skin type was independently associated with 25(OH)D. No HIV variables were associated with 25(OH)D, even when HIV sub-populations were examined. Inflammation, CVD risk factors and immune restoration were not independently associated with 25(OH)D. CONCLUSIONS: Vitamin D deficiency is common among HIV-infected youth. However, HIV factors, CVD risk, inflammation and immune restoration do not appear to have the same relationship with vitamin D as has been shown in adults. Supplementation trials are needed to determine if increasing 25(OH)D concentrations could better elucidate these relationships.
Published Article/Book Citation
Antiviral Therapy, : (2012) pp.-. DOI:10.3851/IMP2318;.
Citation Information
A. R. Eckard, S. E. Judd, T. R. Ziegler, A. F. Camacho-Gonzalez, et al.. "Risk factors for vitamin D deficiency and relationship with cardiac biomarkers, inflammation and immune restoration in HIV-infected youth" Antiviral Therapy (2012) ISSN: 2040-2058
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