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Variation Orders – Construction Industry Stakeholders’ Views
The Third Built Environment Conference - Association of Schools of Construction of the Southern Africa (2008)
  • Ruben Ndihokubwayo, Cape Peninsula University of Technology
  • Theo Haupt, Cape Peninsula University of Technology
Purpose: This study discusses the problems caused by variation orders and the reduction of their occurrence. Design/methodology/approach: A literature review focused on the identification and administration of variation orders. A combination of open-ended and closed-ended questions and interviews were used to get perceptions of construction industry stakeholders about the occurrence of variation orders. Purposive sampling was followed to identify participants into the survey. Findings: By carefully examining site instructions, it was possible to categorise them and identify those that constituted variation orders. Additional works were mostly associated with variation orders due to incomplete designs and scope of works. It was suggested that there should be adequate time and experienced human resources to deliver a sound design within the proposed time frames. Problems encountered when negotiating variation orders included difficulties with agreement of the time and costs involved. Contractors were dissatisfied with discrepancies between claimed and certified amounts. Research limitations/implications: While the analysis of various stakeholders was treated homogenously, it is acknowledged that difference in opinions might be prevalent between them. Practical implications: The study increases the awareness of the contribution of variation orders relative to their value-addedness. Originality/value: The study discusses an issue that has not been traditionally perceived as important relative to waste contribution.
Publication Date
Winter July 6, 2008
Citation Information
Ruben Ndihokubwayo and Theo Haupt. "Variation Orders – Construction Industry Stakeholders’ Views" The Third Built Environment Conference - Association of Schools of Construction of the Southern Africa (2008)
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