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A maximum likelihood watermark decoding scheme
Faculty of Informatics - Papers (Archive)
  • Wenming Lu, University of Wollongong
  • Wanqing Li, University of Wollongong
  • Rei Safavi-Naini, University of Wollongong
  • Philip Ogunbona, University of Wollongong
Publication Date
Publication Details

This conference paper was originally published as Lu, W, Li, W, Safavi-Naini, R, Ogunbona, P, A Maximum Likelihood Watermark Decoding Scheme, 2007 IEEE International Conference on Multimedia and Expo ICME 2007, Beijing, 2-5 July 2007, 1247-1250. The original paper is available here.

Based on the observation that an attack applied on a watermarked image, from a decoding point of view, modifies the distribution of the detection values away from the ideal distribution (without attack) for corresponding watermarking scheme, we propose a generic maximum likelihood decoding scheme by approximating the distribution with a finite Gaussian mixture model. The parameters of the model are estimated using expectation-maximization algorithm. The scheme allows the decoding to be automatically adapted to attacks that the watermarked images have undergone and, in consequence, to improve the decoding accuracy. Experiments on a QIM based watermarking system have clearly verified the significant improvement of the decoding accuracy achieved by the proposed maximum likelihood decoding in comparison to conventional threshold decoding
Citation Information
Wenming Lu, Wanqing Li, Rei Safavi-Naini and Philip Ogunbona. "A maximum likelihood watermark decoding scheme" (2007)
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