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Association between retinol and vitamin C with the risk of oral cancer - A case-control study
Oral Oncology (2011)
  • Vimmitra A.
  • Razak I. A.
  • Helen-Ng L. C.
  • Ghani W. M. N.
  • Abdullah N.
  • Rosnah Binti Zain, University of Malaya
Introduction: Dietary intake has been hypothesized to be associated with various diseases including oral cancer. According to studies worldwide, imbalanced diet and nutrient deficiency have been attributed to promote oral malignancies. However, the function of specific nutrients in preventing oral cancer remains largely undefined. This study aims to investigate the association between intake of retinol and vitamin C with the risk of oral cancer. Materials and methods: Dietary intake data was collected from 8 participating hospitals throughout Malaysia using a validated foodfrequency questionnaire (FFQ). Intake of retinol and vitamin C were computed using the Nutriemart software. This case-control study included 150 cases and 150 controls matched for age, gender and ethnicity.The association between micronutrients, risk habits and oral cancer was analysed using Pearson Chi-Square test and multiple logistic regression. Results: Significantly more controls were found to consume retinol (27.3%) and vitamin C (83.3%) above the Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA) as compared to cases (10.7% and 72.0%, respectively). Among risk habits, only cigarette smoking was found to have an inverse association with vitamin C (p = 0.021) where as no risk habits were found to be associated with retinol intake. After adjusting for confounding factors, only retinol intake was found to be inversely related to the risk of oral cancer (aOR 0.272, 95%CI 0.135– 0.548). Discussion: This study suggests that vitamin C appears to reduce risk of oral cancer and this relationship is weakened after adjusting for risk habits. Meanwhile, retinol intake proves to provide protection against oral cancer up to 72.8% independent of risk habits practiced.
  • Oral squamous cell carcinoma,
  • OSCC,
  • lichenoid lesions,
  • lichen planus,
  • oral cancer,
  • oral tumours,
  • pemphigus,
  • traumatic eosinophilic granuloma,
  • aphthous ulcers,
  • oral mucosal lesions,
  • betel chewers mucosa,
  • betel quid related lesions,
  • betel quid,
  • areca quid,
  • tobacco quid,
  • oral cancer screening,
  • training and calibration,
  • early detection,
  • oral cancer awareness,
  • biobanking,
  • tissue bank,
  • databank,
  • oral cancer,
  • tissue bank,
  • research credibility,
  • research ethics
Publication Date
July, 2011
Citation Information
Vimmitra A., Razak I. A., Helen-Ng L. C., Ghani W. M. N., et al.. "Association between retinol and vitamin C with the risk of oral cancer - A case-control study" Oral Oncology Vol. 47 Iss. Supplement 1 (2011)
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