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Development of leadership skills: Experience and timing
The Leadership Quarterly
  • Michael D. Mumford, University of Oklahoma
  • Michelle A. Marks, Florida International University
  • American Institutes for Research, American Institutes for Research
  • Stephen J. Zaccaro, George Mason University
  • Roni Reiter-Palmon, University of Nebraska at Omaha
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To develop organizational leaders we need to understand how requisite skills are acquired over the course of people's careers. In this article, a cross-sectional design was used to assess differences in leadership skills across six grade levels of officers in the U.S. Army. Increased levels of knowledge, problem-solving skills, systems skills, and social skills were found at higher grade levels. Certain skills and experiences, however, were found to be particularly important at certain phases of leaders' careers. These findings are used to propose an organization-based model of skill development. Implications of this model for leader development programs are discussed.

NOTICE: this is the author’s version of a work that was accepted for publication in The Leadership Quarterly. Changes resulting from the publishing process, such as peer review, editing, corrections, structural formatting, and other quality control mechanisms may not be reflected in this document. Changes may have been made to this work since it was submitted for publication. A definitive version was subsequently published in The Leadership Quarterly, Vol. 11, Issue 1 (Spring 2000) DOI# 10.1016/S1048-9843(99)00044-2.

Citation Information
Michael D. Mumford, Michelle A. Marks, American Institutes for Research, Stephen J. Zaccaro, et al.. "Development of leadership skills: Experience and timing" The Leadership Quarterly Vol. 11 Iss. 1 (2000) p. 87 - 114
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