Skip to main content
Unpublished Paper
At-Risk EMS Employees- A Model of Assessment and Intervention.pdf
  • Ron J Hammond
  • Kate Miller, Utah Valley University
This paper includes data results from a survey of Utah (U.S.) EMS personnel.  Those who reported having already reach a point of wanting to quit the field and having reached a point of wanting to resign their current position were classified as being “At Risk” (N=142) and were compared to those who had not (N=395).  T-Test and ratio analysis indicated that those At Risk were found to have significantly higher incidences of difficult past calls, PTSD-like symptoms, and a variety of personal hardships. Both groups had relatively high indicators of negative impact of working in the EMS field on their relationships, life satisfaction, and positive job outlook. Arguments are made for implementing a posttraumatic growth model that builds on the CISM debriefing model and that provides preventative rather than reparative intervention efforts to EMS personnel.
  • EMS,
  • PTSD,
  • Post Traumatic Growth
Publication Date
Winter March 5, 2019
Citation Information
Ron J Hammond and Kate Miller. "At-Risk EMS Employees- A Model of Assessment and Intervention.pdf" (2019)
Available at:
Creative Commons License
Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons CC_BY-SA International License.