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Representational predicaments for employees : their impact on perceptions of supervisors' individualized consideration and on employee job satisfaction
International Journal of Human Resource Management (2013)
  • Robin Stanley SNELL, Lingnan University, Hong Kong
  • Zhang YI
  • Almaz Man Kuen CHAK
A representational predicament for a subordinate vis-à-vis his or her immediate superior involves perceptual incongruence with the superior about the subordinate's work or work context, with unfavourable implications for the employee. An instrument to measure the incidence of two types of representational predicament, being neglected and negative slanting, was developed and then validated through an initial survey of 327 employees. A subsequent substantive survey with a fresh sample of 330 employees largely supported a conceptual model linking being neglected and negative slanting to perceptions of low individualized consideration by superiors and to low overall job satisfaction. The respondents in both surveys were all Hong Kong Chinese. Two case examples drawn from qualitative interviews illustrate and support the conceptual model. Based on the research findings, we recommend some practical exercises to use in training interventions with leaders and subordinates.
  • individualized consideration,
  • job satisfaction,
  • negative slanting,
  • neglect,
  • perceptual incongruence,
  • representational predicaments
Publication Date
April 1, 2013
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Copyright © 2013 Taylor & Francis

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Citation Information
Snell, R. S., Yi, Z., & Chak, A. M. K. (2013). Representational predicaments for employees : Their impact on perceptions of supervisors' individualized consideration and on employee job satisfaction. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 24(8), 1646-1670. doi:10.1080/09585192.2012.723634