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Treatment Outcomes for Toddlers with Behaviour Problems from Families in Poverty
Child and Adolescent Mental Health
  • Robert A. Fox, Marquette University
  • Casey A. Holtz, Marquette University
Document Type
Format of Original
7 p.
Publication Date

Background. Relatively few treatment studies address mental health issues in very young children. This study examined the effectiveness of a treatment program for toddlers whose behavior problems were further complicated by living in poverty.

Method. An empirically-validated treatment program was adapted for use in the homes of 102 toddlers for an average of 12 weekly sessions.

Results. Significant improvements were found for the children’s behavior problems and their compliance to parent requests.

Discussion. The inherent challenges in working with at-risk families and the challenges in delivering mental health services for very young children living in poverty are discussed.


Accepted version. Child and Adolescent Mental Health, Vol. 14, No. 4 (November 2009): 183-189. DOI. © 2009 Wiley-Blackwell. Used with permission.

The definitive version is available at

Citation Information
Robert A. Fox and Casey A. Holtz. "Treatment Outcomes for Toddlers with Behaviour Problems from Families in Poverty" Child and Adolescent Mental Health (2009) ISSN: 1475-357X
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