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Unpublished Paper
Conceptualizing Government-Organized Non-Governmental Organizations
Development Studies Association Annual Meeting (Oxford, UK), September 12-14 (2016)
  • Reza Hasmath, University of Alberta
  • Timothy Hildebrandt, London School of Economics and Political Science
  • Jennifer YJ Hsu, University of Alberta
This article offers a framework to identify and analyse the contemporary behaviour of the paradoxical government-organized, non-governmental organization (GONGO). We discuss how GONGOs’ activities fit within mainstream civil society theories and traditions, and suggest the emergence of what we call a ‘Xi-st’ tradition, which contrasts to the religious, Duntatist and Wilsonian NGO traditions. Furthermore, we compare and analyse GONGOs and NGOs in terms of their sources of power, main functions and strategies for execution, and dilemmas. Finally, we theorize the effects, and implications the growth of GONGOs have on state and society relations globally.
  • GONGO,
  • international NGOs,
  • global state-society relations,
  • civil society,
  • authoritarianism
Publication Date
Citation Information
Hasmath, R., Hildebrandt, T. and Hsu, J.Y. (2016) "Conceptualizing Government-Organized Non-Governmental Organizations", Paper Presented at Development Studies Association Annual Meeting (Oxford, UK), September 12-14.