A method is presented for determining the effects of time dependence, axial diffusion, and axial migration in aparallel-plate electrochemical reactor (PPER). The method consists of formulating the governing equations and applying a numerical integration technique to solve a set of time-dependent, nonlinear, coupled, multidimensional equations. This formulation reveals that the steady-state performance of the PPER depends on the cell potential and three dimensionless groups. Predictions of the concentration, potential, and local current distributions in a PPER are presented for the electrowinning of copper from an aqueous, hydrochloric acid solution. These predictions show that axial diffusion and axial migration are significant when the aspect ratio (i.e., the ratio of electrode separation to electrode length) is greater than 0.5.
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